Everything you need to know about kamikaze drones in service with the Russians. 6 cards

The morning of October 17 began with the fact that the Russian army attacked Kiev with kamikaze drones. As a result of the attack, a fire broke out in a non-residential building, several residential buildings were damaged. As of 13: 00, It is known about three dead.

Russia has been attacking Ukrainian cities with Iranian Shahed-136 drones since September. We tell you how these drones work, how many of them are in service with the enemy army, whether they can influence the course of the war and how to escape from them.

1 What are kamikaze drones?

These are unmanned aerial vehicles with a warhead. Kamikaze drones are able to automatically perform the task for which they are programmed. Such drones combine the advantages of a UAV and an aircraft bomb warhead.

Kamikaze drones are also called "barraging ammunition" due to the fact that they can put data about the target in advance, and they will independently search for it or simply hit the specified coordinates. Such drones can find the target after launch and are controlled by the operator until the moment of impact. This is what distinguishes kamikaze drones from rockets. However, those drones that Russia purchased from Iran are not able to find the target on their own.

Most often, Russia attacks Ukrainian territory with Iranian Shahed-136 kamikaze drones, as well as a Lancet UAV of its own production. The maximum speed of the latter is 110 km/h during horizontal flight and 300 km/h during a target attack, and the maximum range is 40 km, according to the air forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.

However, the last strikes on the Ukrainian capital were carried out with the help of "shahids".

2 What are the characteristics of Shahed attack drones?

The Shahed family of Iranian drones includes several types of UAVs, which differ significantly from each other. Now Russia most often attacks Ukraine with Shahed-136 drones.

They have the following characteristics::

range-maximum up to 2500 km;flight altitude — from 60 to 4000 m;cruising speed — 180 km/h;fly on a piston gasoline engine;warhead weight — 30-50 kg.

Photo by Iranian media

Russia marks the Iranian kamikaze drone Shahed - 136 as"geranium-2". It is designed to hit targets at a long distance. The drone is aimed at a stationary target based on satellite coordinates.

It is launched from the launch platform, has an engine with which it gains speed and altitude. The target is hit by a warhead in the nose of the drone.

The Iranian drone is difficult to track, but it can be destroyed with conventional small arms. In addition, Shahed-136s create a strong noise that helps identify it and knock it down.

Shahed - 136 is not able to find targets on its own. It also can't attack moving objects. This drone is launched only in the direction of large non-mobile targets.

Shahed-136 drones are dangerous when there are a lot of them. The warhead of Iranian UAVs weighs up to 50 kg. This is enough to hit an artillery installation or tank. However, this is significantly less than that of Russian missiles, the warhead of which contains hundreds of kilograms of explosives.

Shahed-136 is made in Iran, using western parts, the drone is copied from the German LIMBACH L 550 E engine with 50 horsepower. Their cost is relatively low: experts say about 1 10 thousand for one drone. Probably, for Russia, the question is not the price, but only how quickly Iran is able to produce drones.

It is worth noting that Iran denies supplying Russia with kamikaze drones.

3 How many Iranian drones did Russia Buy and what does it use them for

The Russian army uses Shahed-136 kamikaze drones to attack Ukrainian critical infrastructure, because for such purposes these UAVs are more effective than for attacks on people. This was stated by the head of the joint press center of the Defense Forces of the Operational Command "South" Natalia Gumenyuk.

"The fact that they are trying to use these drones on critical infrastructure facilities (to deprive us of water, heat, electricity) comes from their tactical and technical characteristics, since these drones work like matches. It's like a lightning strike that sets a certain object on fire and puts it out of action not so much by an explosion as by fire. Using it for crowds of people is not so effective," Gumenyuk said.

According to her, now the figures regarding the presence of a certain number of kamikaze drones in the Russian army are contradictory, but the Ukrainian military records their accumulation in the temporarily occupied territories and on the northern borders of Ukraine.

The speaker of the Air Force Command, Yuri Ignat, believes that the Russian army is increasingly using Iranian drones in the war against Ukraine, because it protects high-precision missiles, as well as because of the convenience of these UAVs for strikes.

"Russia has stopped actively using its high-precision missiles, which cost millions of dollars. Perhaps it is preparing them for strikes on critical infrastructure facilities in the autumn-winter period. Therefore, it sends much cheaper Iranian kamikaze drones to launch long-range strikes. The Iranian Shahed-136 drone, although primitive, is a weapon," Ignat explained.

President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky said that Russia has ordered 2,400 attack drones from Iran. Note that this does not mean that Iran or Russia already have such a large number of drones. Probably, we are talking about an order for their production.

The American Institute for the study of war (ISW) in its report said that Russia could have signed a contract with Iran for the purchase of Arash-2 drones, "faster and more destructive" for previously received Shahed-136s.

4 can kamikaze drones change the course of war

According to the Ukrainian Air Force, anti-aircraft missile units and fighter aircraft manage to shoot down more than 60% of Iranian drones. According to experts, this is a very high indicator.

An analytical report by the American Institute for the study of War states that Russia's use of Iranian-made drones will not have the same effect as it did with Ukraine's use of HIMARS systems provided to the United States. And it is unlikely that Iranian kamikaze drones will significantly affect the course of the war.

According to ISW, Russian troops are not concentrating these drones near the battlefield. They use a lot of UAVs against civilian targets in the rear for terror, and such actions do not change the combat picture at the very front.

Military commentator Alexander Kovalenko also believes that drones cannot cause significant damage on the front line, because they are ineffective at moving targets.

5 How to act during a drone attack

We publish recommendations of the Center for Strategic Communications and information security.

Дро these drones are loud. As they approach, a sound similar to the engine of a moped or chainsaw can be clearly heard in the air. If you hear this sound, assess the situation and stay away from administrative buildings, strategic and military facilities.

🟡 Find shelter and wait out the attack. If the shelter is far away, follow the "two walls" rule, which should separate you from danger.

🟡 If you come under fire on the street, find any ledge, depression in the ground, or ditch. Lie down on the ground, cover your head with your hands and open your mouth.

У in the premises, choose a place in the corner and near the exit in order to instantly leave the building in the event of a shell hit.

Залишайтеся stay in hiding for at least 10 minutes after the shelling is completed. Do not stay in transport during the shelling.

Не do not attempt to shoot down the drone yourself with your own weapon within the city limits. Interior Minister Denis Monastyrsky said on October 17 that this could lead to tragic consequences. In this case, you should rely on the military and law enforcement officers.

6 What is an Anti-Drone Dome?

Adviser to the mayor of Kiev Yuriy Zozulya on the air of the telethon "United news" on October 15 said that a special dome is partially working over Kiev to protect against drones. He explained that the plans are to create a system that will allow you to record the movement of drones and attack them in advance.

"This is a deep layered defense. That is, it starts hundreds of kilometers from the city. The system detects drones by various signs and transmits them in a chain to various situation centers that record the movement of this UAV. Accordingly, all systems will be able to navigate in azimuth and attack this drone," said the adviser to the mayor of Kiev.

According to rough estimates, the creation of a full-fledged anti-drone dome will take two years.

Zozulya noted that both British and Canadian scientists are taking part in the project. Almost all the scientific and technical potential of NATO is involved.

DOU will tell you more about the Anti-Drone Dome project in one of the following materials.